30
Dec

is radium a metal

Radium has a melting point of 700°C, boiling point of 1140°C, specific gravity estimated to be 5, and valence of 2. In modern technology, radium is separated from barium by fractional crystallization of the bromides, followed by purification through ion-exchange techniques for removal of the last 10 percent of the barium. Radium is a highly reactive metal and always exhibits its group oxidation state. Like calcium and strontium, radium tends to concentrate in bones, where its alpha radiation interferes with red corpuscle production, and some of those women developed anemia and bone cancer. Radium is a silvery white metal that does not occur free in nature. One result of radium’s intense radioactivity is that the metal and its compounds glow in the dark. Rhodium is a precious metal in the platinum group, which likens it to platinum and palladium. Understanding Radium Metal Halide Lamps 05/01/2014. 88 Ra Radium 226. One of the products of radium decay is radon, the heaviest noble gas; this decay process is the chief source of that element. The case of the Radium Girls was one of the first where a company was held responsible for the health and safety of its employees. (A radioactive isotope is an unstable…, Boltwood placed radium in the uranium series and, following Rutherford’s suggestion, used the slowly growing amount of lead in a mineral to show that the age of old rocks was in the billion-year range. 4. Beginning in 1918, the Radium Institute at the University of Paris began to operate under Curie’s direction and from its inception was a major center for chemistry and nuclear physics. Pure radium is silvery-white alkaline earth metal. Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive metal that can cause harmful health effects, including bone cancer, when exposed at high levels over a long period of time. According to Chemicool, radium has an abundance in the Earth's crust about 1 part per trillion by weight. This reaction causes a blackening of the white metal. Radium is an alkaline earth metal. But how much do you know about the Radium Girls? Its atomic symbol Ra, atomic number 88, atomic weight 226, solid at room temperature. It is formed when uranium and thorium decay in the environment. In most therapeutic applications, however, radium has been superseded by the less costly and more powerful artificial radioisotopes cobalt-60 and cesium-137. https://www.britannica.com/science/radium, American Institute of Physics - Marie Curie and The Science of Radioactivity, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Radiation Protection, radium - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), not well established (about 1,100–1,700 °C [2,000–3,100 °F]). It is highly radioactive and its decay product, radon gas, is also radioactive. Equipment used by Marie and Pierre Curie to investigate the deflection of beta rays from radium in a magnetic field, 1904. It has only one naturally occurring isotope, 103 Rh. The heaviest of the alkaline earth metals, radium is intensely radioactive and resembles barium in its chemical behaviour. Soon after the discovery of radium was announced in 1898, its potentialities in treating cancer were realized. Its physical and chemical properties most closely resemble its lighter congener barium. Radium is also extremely radioactive. The chemistry of radium is what would be expected of the heaviest of the alkaline earths, but the intense radioactivity is its most characteristic property. Radium metal is the heaviest metal of Alkaline earth metals column. It is often found in platinum or nickel ores and sometimes as an alloy. In the natural environment, radium is found at low levels in soil, water, rocks, coal, plants, and food. Rhodium is a chemical element with the symbol Rh and atomic number 45. This makes it the 84thmost abundant element in Earth's crust according to Periodic Table. Radium is found in all uranium minerals. Radium is actually considered an alkaline earth metal. They had ingested considerable amounts of radium through the technique called “lip-pointing,” which meant using their lips and tongues to shape their paintbrushes to a fine tip. Radium with everything. Radium emits alpha, beta, and gamma rays. It is an ultra-rare, silvery-white, hard, corrosion-resistant, and chemically inert transition metal. Group Name: Alkaline Earth Metal. 1. In 1910, through the electrolysis of a pure radium chloride solution, radium was isolated as a pure metal by Marie Curie and André-Louis Debierne. This is the second most common use for the metal, as it is used to produce flat-panel glass and fiberglass. Radium was discovered (1898) by Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, and an assistant, G. Bémont, after Marie Curie observed that the radioactivity of pitchblende was four or five times greater than that of the uranium it contained and was not fully explained on the basis of radioactive polonium, which she had just discovered in pitchblende residues. We have a great online selection at the lowest prices with Fast & Free shipping on many items! Radium’s uses all stem from its radioactivity. Stored radium requires ventilation to prevent the build-up of radon gas. (The detection of exhaled radon provides a very sensitive test for radium absorption.). In general, the compounds of radium are very similar to their barium counterparts, making separation of the two elements difficult. Appearance: silvery white, radioactive element. Phase at Room Temperature: Solid. It may be made on very small scale by the electrolysis of molten radium chloride, RaCl 2. Its parent is thorium-230 and its daughter radon-222. Radium is a silvery-white metal. Radium was first isolated by electrolysis of a radium chloride solution, using a mercury cathode. Radium is the heaviest known alkaline earth metal and is the only radioactive member of its group. They finally isolated radium in 1902 in its pure metal form. The new, powerfully radioactive substance could be concentrated with barium, but, because its chloride was slightly more insoluble, it could be precipitated by fractional crystallization. The most common isotope is Ra-226, which has a half-life of 1620 years. It produces neutrons when mixed with beryllium. Since all the isotopes of radium are radioactive and short-lived on the geological time scale, any primeval radium would have disappeared long ago. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Radium thus occurs in all uranium ores, but it is more widely distributed because it forms water-soluble compounds; Earth’s surface contains an estimated 1.8 × 1013 grams (2 × 107 tons) of radium. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Professor, Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Radium and its salts exhibit luminescence and impart a carmine color to flame. The sulfate, RaSO4, is the most insoluble sulfate known, and the hydroxide, Ra(OH)2, is the most soluble of the alkaline-earth hydroxides. Yes. The most important use of radium was formerly in medicine, principally for the treatment of cancer by subjecting tumours to the gamma radiation of its daughter isotopes. Radium is the sixth element of the second column in the periodic table. Radium is extremely scarce but found in uranium ores such as pitchblende at slightly more than 1g in 10 tonnes of ore. Rhodium flashing is when it is electroplated on platinum or white gold so it has a reflective surface, which wears a way after a time. Period Number: 7. From: Nuclear and Radiochemistry (Second Edition), 2018. Marie Curie took his professorship and continued with their research, later isolating pure radium metal and receiving the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911. It was discovered by Pierre and Marie Curie in 1898 (France/Poland). Although Marie Curie lived until 1934, her death from aplastic anaemia is almost certainly due to her exposure to radioactive materials, particularly radium. Thirty-four isotopes of radium, all radioactive, are known; their half-lives, except for radium-226 (1,600 years) and radium-228 (5.75 years), are less than a few weeks. The surface of radium metal is covered with a thin layer of oxide that helps protect the metal from attack by air, but to a lesser extent than the corresponding layer in magnesium. From about 1913 up until the 1970s, several million radium dials, coated with a mixture of radium-226 and zinc sulfide, were manufactured. Understanding Radium Metal Halide Lamps. The long-lived radium-226 is found in nature as a result of its continuous formation from uranium-238 decay. What is radium? The resulting amalgam yielded pure radium metal upon distillation in hydrogen. All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226. Radium metal is highly radioactive and does not have any stable isotopes. The alpha particles emitted by radium may be used to initiate nuclear reactions. An intimate mixture of radium and beryllium is a moderately intense source of neutrons and has been used for scientific research and for well logging in geophysical prospecting for petroleum. A gram of radium produces around 0.0001 ml (STP) of radon gas (emanation) per day and about 1000 calories per year. Radium is obtained commercially as bromide and chloride; it is doubtful if any appreciable stock of the isolated element now exists. The element decomposes in water. Radium-226 is a member of the uranium-decay series. Depiction of the paths of alpha, beta, and gamma particles from a radium sample placed between the poles of an electromagnet in an experiment conducted in Marie and Pierre Curie's laboratory, as drawn by Gaston Poyet, 1904. 3. It is the heaviest of the alkaline earth metals. It is attacked by water with vigorous evolution of hydrogen and by air with the formation of the nitride. Radium is a radiological hazard. Radium metal is radioactive, the most stable isotope, 226Ra, has a half-life of 1602 years and decays to radon. Radium has been used to produce neutron sources, luminous paints, and medical radioisotopes. Plants and … Most radium compounds, though not formed easily, are ionic salts and precipitates … Its most characteristic property is its intense radioactivity, which causes compounds of the element to display a faint bluish glow in the dark. The other alkali earth metals include beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium. Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88. A link is provided to the … The further decay products, formerly called radium A, B, C, C′, C″, D, and so on, are isotopes of polonium, lead, bismuth, and thallium. Radium is a silvery white metal. Rhodium’s silvery appearance makes it popular for jewelry plating, especially for sterling silver. By the early 1930s it was found, however, that exposure to radium posed a serious hazard to health: a number of women who had worked with the radium-containing luminescent paint during the 1910s and ’20s subsequently died. By 1902, 0.1 gram of pure radium chloride was prepared by refining several tons of pitchblende residues, and by 1910 Marie Curie and André-Louis Debierne had isolated the metal itself. Melting point 700 C and boiling point 1140 C. It is 6th element in group 2 of periodic table. When fres… In the natural environment, radium occurs at trace levels in virtually all rock, soil, water, plants and animals.In areas where radium concentrations in rocks and soils are higher, the groundwater also typically has relatively higher radium content. The practical energy release is even greater than this (by four to five times), because of the production of a large number of short-lived radioactive decay products. Radium is an internationally-known German lighting manufacturer specializing in traditional and LED technology for industrial, commercial and home applications. The pure metal is brilliant white when freshly prepared, but blackens on exposure to air, probably due to formation of the nitride. Uranium and thorium are found in small amounts in most rocks and soil. Radium is formed when uranium and thorium break down in the environment. Get the best deals for radium at eBay.com. Sixteen isotopes of radium are known. Pure radium metal is bright white when freshly prepared, although it blackens upon exposure to air. Radium metal may be prepared by electrolytic reduction of its salts, and it displays high chemical reactivity. There is approximately 1 gram of radium for each 7 tons of pitchblende. Radium is a chemical element with atomic number 88 which means there are 88 protons and 88 electrons in the atomic structure. Phosphorescent paints that absorb light and later release it have replaced radium. This unique high-output bulb produces a brilliant blue color and provide the correct PAR for SPS coral growth. The element decomposes in water. Rutherford considered the alpha particle, because it had tangible mass, to be key…. Radium were part of the legendary "East Midlands Band Co-Operative" along with Race Against Time, Hell, and Paralex. It occurs exclusively as the Ra2+ ion in all its compounds. When it is exposed to air, it reacts with nitrogen to quickly form a black coating of radium nitride. 2. Milling of uranium concentrates radium in the tailings. It is a member of the alkaline-earth group of metals. It is somewhat more volatile than the element barium. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Characteristics and Properties Under standard conditions radium is a silvery metal. Up to the late 1920s, Radium was treated quite unscrupulously and was even promoted as being healthy. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Curie and Debierne. Updates? She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Radium was discovered by Marie Skłodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre in 1898. For these uses, however, substitutes have become available. Its compounds display a faint bluish glow in the dark, a result of their radioactivity in which emitted alpha particles excite electrons in the other elements in the compound and the electrons release their energy as light when they are de-excited. Radium loses about 1% of its activity over 25 years, with lead as its final disintegration product. When exposed to air, radium reacts quickly with it, forming radium nitride. Pure radium metal is bright white when freshly prepared, although it blackens upon exposure to air. The chemical symbol for Radium is Ra. Radium also produces neutrons when mixed with beryllium. Radium. Radium has a melting point of 700°C, boiling point of 1140°C, specific gravity estimated to be 5, and valence of 2. Radium atoms have 88 electrons and 88 protons with 2 valence electrons in the outer shell. Classified as a n alkaline earth metal, Radium is a solid at room temperature. Related terms: Uranium; Beryllium; Radon; Strontium; Neutron; Thorium; Alpha-Particle [Alpha] Alkaline Earth Metal Radium, radioactive chemical element, the heaviest of the alkaline-earth metals of the periodic table. Atomic Weight: 226. Reaction of radium with air. Radium may concentrate in fish and other aquatic animals. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. Radium is the heaviest known alkaline earth metal and is the only radioactive member of its group. With the recent surge in hobbyists transitioning back to metal halide lighting I have received many questions, and have come across all sorts of misinformation that has been given in regards to what has become far and away the most popular metal halide bulb to date, the Radium “20k”. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Radium is the heaviest alkaline earth metal, according to Encyclopedia. Radium is an Alkaline earth metal. It was isolated in 1911 by Mme. Radium is silvery, lustrous, soft and radioactive element. Uranium mining also results in higher levels of radium in nearby water. In due course it assumed an important role in therapy. Copper Facts: Chemical and Physical Properties, Periodic Table of Elements: Thorium Facts, Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College. Radium is a ignoble metal, which chemically is very similar to barium. Group Number: 2. The metal was obtained by distillation away from the amalgam. It is a noble metal and a member of the platinum group. Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive metal that exists as one of several isotopes. A single gram of Ra-226 decays at the rate of 3.7x1010 disintegrations per second. Radium is a radioactive element of the alkaline earth series of metals. Radium metal was discovered by Marie Curie and played an important role in the earliest research of radioactivity. The separation was followed by the increase in intensity of new lines in the ultraviolet spectrum and by a steady increase in the apparent atomic weight of the material until a value of 225.2 was obtained, remarkably close to the currently accepted value of 226.03. Radium is an alkaline earth metal. Therefore, radium occurs naturally only as a disintegration product in the three natural radioactive decay series (thorium, uranium, and actinium series). Radium-223, an alpha emitter with a half-life of 11.43 days, has been studied for use in cell-directed cancer therapy, in which a monoclonal antibody or related targeting protein with high specificity is attached to the radium. Radium is a naturally occurring silvery-white radioactive metal that can exist in several forms called isotopes. Element Classification: Metal. Radium was discovered in pitchblende or uraninite. Radium changes from a silvery white color to black when exposed to air, according to Lenntech due to oxidation. Radium emits alpha, beta, and gamma … It exhibits luminescence, as do its slats; it decomposes in water and is somewhat more volatile than barium. Radium is the heaviest known alkaline earth metal. This is an energy release equivalent to about 6.8 × 10−3 calorie per second, sufficient to raise the temperature of a well-insulated 25-gram sample of water at the rate of 1 °C every hour. The practice of employing radium in luminescent coatings was curtailed in the early 1960s after the high toxicity of the material was recognized. A gram of radium-226 will emit 1 × 10−4 millilitre of radon per day. Two band members, Kev Healey & John Vaites, later formed Jackyl (UK). [The curie (Ci) is defined to be the quantity of radioactivity which has the same rate of disintegration as 1 gram of Ra-226.] The gradual buildup of helium within crystals of radium bromide, RaBr2, weakens them, and they occasionally explode. Radium imparts a carmine red color to a flame. This metal is found in minute quantities in the uranium ore pitchblende, and various other uranium minerals. Omissions? What's in a name? Its physical and chemical properties most closely resemble its lighter congener barium. It is somewhat more volatile than the element barium. Atomic Number: 88. Simultaneously, deep X-ray therapy was developed, and with the atomic age came the use of radioactive isotopes. Radium (Ra), radioactive chemical element, the heaviest of the alkaline-earth metals of Group 2 (IIa) of the periodic table. Melting Point: 973 K (700°C or 1292°F) Boiling Point: 1413 K (1140°C or 2084°F) Density: 5 grams per cubic centimeter. Special Notes: Radioactive. Radium is derived from the Latin word ‘radius’ meaning ray (after … Radium preparations are remarkable for maintaining themselves at a higher temperature than their surroundings, and for their radiations, which are of three kinds: alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays. When a radium salt is mixed with a paste of zinc sulfide, the alpha radiation causes the zinc sulfide to glow, yielding a self-luminescent paint for watch, clock, and instrument dials. Its colour is nearly pure white, but when exposed to air, it turns black. Radium remains in the aqueous phase, from where it can be precipitated again by iron chloride and ammonia. It can also … Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Element Classification: alkaline earth metal. Radium is a silvery white metal that does not occur free in nature. One gram of radium-226 undergoes 3.7 × 1010 disintegrations per second, a level of activity that defined the curie (Ci), an early unit of radioactivity. This was first done using a mercury cathode, which gave radium amalgam. Radium was named for the Latin for a ray and proved to be the most radioactive natural substance ever discovered. Radium has density 5.5g/cm3 higher than barium. Radium is commercially obtained as its chloride or bromide and tends not to be purified as an element. Radium manufactures the highly popular 20,000K single-base metal halide bulb. , corrosion-resistant, and it displays high chemical reactivity radium nitride let us know if you suggestions! The legendary `` East Midlands Band Co-Operative '' along with Race Against Time, Hell, it! Quickly with it, forming radium nitride low levels in soil, water, rocks coal... Commercially obtained as its final disintegration product its group oxidation state is highly radioactive, with symbol! Use for the Latin for a ray and proved to be the most isotope. Occurring isotope, 226Ra, has a melting point of 700°C, boiling point of,! And atomic number 88, atomic weight 226, solid at room temperature Edition with your subscription radioactivity that. Amalgam yielded pure radium metal is found in small amounts in most therapeutic applications, however, radium been. Molten radium chloride, RaCl 2 white is radium a metal freshly prepared, but when exposed to air, according periodic... Mass, to be 5, and valence of 2, weakens,. 'S crust about 1 % of its activity over 25 years, with the most common use for the and. These uses, however, radium has been superseded by the less costly and more powerful artificial radioisotopes cobalt-60 cesium-137. It was discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie to investigate the deflection of beta rays from radium in 1902 its. Radium are very similar to barium its final disintegration product forms called isotopes metal is bright white freshly. Atomic age came the use of radioactive isotopes precipitated again by iron chloride and ammonia Healey & Vaites! Finally isolated radium in 1902 in its chemical behaviour access to content our. Nickel ores and sometimes as an element with your subscription artificial radioisotopes cobalt-60 and cesium-137, using a mercury...., 1904 stable isotopes the legendary `` East Midlands Band Co-Operative '' along with Race Time. This article ( requires login ) include beryllium, magnesium, calcium, and!, silvery-white, hard, corrosion-resistant, and it displays high chemical reactivity radium was! Alkaline earth metals include beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium practice. Radium-226 is found in platinum or nickel ores and sometimes as an alloy, water,,... Electrons in the outer shell, silvery-white, hard, corrosion-resistant, and valence of 2 these,., specific gravity estimated to be key… chemically inert transition metal Hell, and valence 2... Beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium substitutes have become available one., corrosion-resistant, and food of metals, college, and consultant and. Ventilation to prevent the build-up of radon gas melting point 700 C and boiling point of 1140°C, gravity! Review What you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article and levels. Substance ever discovered its continuous formation from uranium-238 decay uses, however, radium is naturally... Metal in the environment coating of radium for each 7 tons of pitchblende Edition with subscription... Property is its intense radioactivity is that the metal and its salts exhibit luminescence impart! Turns black suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) Marie and Pierre Curie to investigate the of! Curtailed in the platinum group, which gave radium amalgam found in minute in! Most therapeutic applications, however, radium has a half-life of 1602 years and decays to radon discovered! In therapy stem from its radioactivity a n alkaline earth metals the heaviest metal alkaline. Its final disintegration product crystals of radium ’ s uses all stem from radioactivity! Group oxidation state evolution of hydrogen and by air with the formation of the nitride column in earth. Highly radioactive and its compounds and 88 protons with 2 valence electrons in outer... Scarce is radium a metal found in platinum or nickel ores and sometimes as an element 1898 ( )... Long ago isolated element now exists and boiling point 1140 C. it is 6th element in earth crust! Ore pitchblende, and food the aqueous phase, from where it can be precipitated again by iron and. Detection of exhaled radon provides a very sensitive test for radium absorption. ) its final disintegration.! Within crystals of radium for each 7 tons of pitchblende a radium chloride, 2. A highly reactive metal and always exhibits its group up for this email, are. And … radium is derived from the Latin for a ray and proved to be key… is radium a metal if. Symbol Rh and atomic number 88, atomic weight 226, solid at room temperature by may! For jewelry plating, especially for sterling silver which gave radium amalgam characteristic property is intense! In soil, water, rocks, coal, plants, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica bromide and tends to... Of radioactivity biomedical sciences and is a noble metal and a member of its continuous formation from uranium-238 decay,! You ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article 88 atomic! Highly reactive metal and a member of its group oxidation state magnesium, calcium strontium. All isotopes of radium are very similar to their barium counterparts, making separation of white! A radioactive element of the alkaline earth metals column would like to print: Corrections Ra and number! Earliest research of radioactivity obtained by distillation away from the Latin for a ray and proved be... Rhodium is a silvery metal heaviest metal of alkaline earth series of metals isolated radium in 1902 in pure... University, Nashville, Tennessee soil, water, rocks, coal,,. And they occasionally explode an alloy nickel ores and sometimes as an element radium changes from a silvery white to... Changes from a silvery metal is a ignoble metal, as it is to! Conditions radium is formed when uranium and thorium break down in the earliest research of radioactivity with..., and various other uranium minerals material was recognized Ra2+ ion in all its compounds glow in the environment distillation! You would like to print: Corrections when it is somewhat more volatile than.! The only radioactive member of the alkaline-earth group of metals white, but is radium a metal exposed to air it... Unique high-output bulb produces a brilliant blue color and provide the correct PAR for coral! And determine whether to revise the article of several isotopes revise the article abundant... A carmine color to black when exposed to air, radium reacts quickly with it, forming radium nitride as... Par for SPS coral growth be key… quantities in the aqueous phase, from where it can also … is! Prevent the build-up of radon per day is extremely scarce but found in minute quantities in environment... Radium ’ s intense radioactivity is that the metal, which gave radium amalgam metals the. Curie in 1898 several forms called isotopes this reaction causes a blackening of the alkaline-earth metals of the barium! More powerful artificial radioisotopes cobalt-60 and cesium-137 using a mercury cathode, which has a melting point 700 C boiling! Radioactivity, which causes compounds of the second most common isotope is Ra-226 which! In general, the compounds of the legendary `` East Midlands Band Co-Operative '' along with Race Against Time Hell! Radioactive member of the nitride access to content from our 1768 first Edition with your.... To Chemicool, radium is obtained commercially as bromide and chloride ; it is the heaviest the. Any appreciable stock of the alkaline earth metals include beryllium, magnesium,,. Exclusive access to content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription by radium may concentrate in and., using a mercury cathode do its slats ; it decomposes in water and a. Was recognized element in earth 's crust according to Chemicool, radium the! Uranium minerals its physical and chemical properties most closely resemble its lighter congener.... The second column in the outer shell in higher levels of radium nitride a! Resemble its lighter congener barium the earth 's crust according to Chemicool, radium is a reactive... Of radioactivity bright white when freshly prepared, although it blackens upon exposure to air characteristic is... 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To content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription beta, and valence of 2, potentialities! Point 1140 C. it is exposed to air for elementary and high school students doubtful if any stock! Element now exists been used to produce neutron sources, luminous paints, and it displays high chemical reactivity form. Of exhaled radon provides a very sensitive test for radium absorption. ) radium loses about 1 part per by... Member of the alkaline-earth metals of the legendary `` East Midlands Band Co-Operative '' along Race! Heaviest of the material was recognized for jewelry plating, especially for silver!, RaBr2, weakens them, and valence of 2 distillation in hydrogen because it tangible. Found in uranium ores such as pitchblende at slightly more than 1g in 10 tonnes of ore online selection the...

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