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dogwood bush diseases pictures

Small trees or individual branches can be girdled and killed in one to two seasons. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. New growth is covered with a fine, white, powdery coating, typically on the upper surfaces of the leaves. Commonly occurring insect pests of dogwood include the dogwood borer, dogwood club-gall midge, and scales. Infection that begins early in the season can be devastating, and the use of fungicides may be warranted. Adult sawflies, which resemble tiny wasps, emerge during late spring and early summer. This scale is usually controlled by beneficial insects and generally does not require spraying. Cankers can girdle and kill individual branches or twigs. If an infestation is heavy, particularly on a young plant, the larvae may be sprayed with horticultural oil registered for landscape use. A heavy infestation can stunt a tree. The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) cultivars ‘Appalachian Joy’, ‘Appalachian Blush ‘, ‘Appalachian Snow’, and ‘Appalachian Mist’ are very resistant to powdery mildew. Dogwood Club-Gall Midge: The dogwood club-gall midge (Resseliella clavula) is a small fly, about 1/16-inch long. The larvae bore into the tree and feed in the phloem (tissues that move plant foods produced by leaves) and outer sapwood. There is one generation each year. Symptoms on dogwoods may also be caused by diseases or abiotic (environmental) factors. A dormant oil spray may be applied in late winter. It most frequently attacks trees that are stressed or injured. Both are small (⅛ to ¼ inch), angular to irregularly shaped and usually bordered by leaf veins. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Symptoms on dogwoods may also be caused by diseases or abiotic (environmental) factors. Kousa dogwood (C. kousa) is also susceptible to infection but is highly resistant to the disease and typically suffers only minor leaf spotting. The disease-tolerant and resistant varieties include: The worst spot anthracnose has been reported on Cornus florida ‘Rainbow’ and ‘Cherokee Daybreak ‘. The adult beetle emerges from infested twigs in the spring and the female lays her eggs in healthy twigs.Flagging of a branch caused by Dogwood Twig Borer infestation. Dogwood trees grow quickly, with a fast rate of over a foot a year. Do not leave dead leaves attached to the tree. Tatarian dogwood is adaptable to most planting sites. Jul 3, 2013 - Explore Rod Wilson's board "Dogwood trees", followed by 392 people on Pinterest. If so, how? Several species native to North American produce flowers for local pollinators and berries for wildlife. There are a few diseases that can attack the dogwood shrub. The first four fungicides listed have systemic properties and can be sprayed less often than sulfur or copper fungicides. During this time, ¼ inch long white ovisacs may be found on branches and twigs. Red winter stems of 'Cardinal' (Cornus sericea) is a shrub native to Minnesota with colorful red or yellow winter bark that provides great winter interest.As a landscape plant, redosier dogwood is extremely versatile. Initial infection could have entered through transplanting wounds or through wounds caused by insects, animals, lawn mowers, sunscald or weed whips. Is this a fungus or disease that we should treat? The issues affecting dogwood trees are too numerous for this writing, but we can cover some of the most common dogwoo… Dogwood Borer Damage at the Base of Flowering Dogwood. Bark sloughs off around holes on the trunk or branches. The galled twigs and terminals die prematurely and flowering is reduced. Its leaves look brown every year and it has not yet flowered. Oil should be applied before new growth begins and again after flowering. Apply a thick layer of mulch (3 to 4 inches) that extends out beyond the foliage of the tree. Dogwood Trees are Prone to These Diseases and Problems. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Clemson UniversityClyde S. Gorsuch, PhD, Emeritus Faculty, Entomology, Clemson University, Joey Williamson, PhD, HGIC Horticulture Extension Agent, Clemson University. Adult female scales are 3/16 inch long, black, flat, and oval. Apply all chemicals according to directions on the label. Keywords: Trees--Diseases and pests, Master gardeners, Cornus florida. Leaf Scorch: Leaf scorch is caused by environmental conditions that are too dry. Practice cultural techniques to prevent or reduce the incidence of plant diseases, including pre-plant soil improvement, proper plant spacing, crop rotation, applying mulch, applying lime and fertilizer based on soil test results, and avoiding over-head irrigation and frequent watering of established plants. Crosses between Cornus kousa and Cornus florida (Rutger’s Hybrids) have greater disease resistance to dogwood anthracnose and include: ‘Aurora’, ‘Celestial’, ‘Galaxy’, ‘Ruth Ellen’, ‘Star Dust’, ‘Stellar Pink’, and ‘Constellation’. Larvae are called flatheaded borers because of the enlarged, flattened area behind the small, black head. It is a serious disease capable of killing large numbers of trees and most Cornus species can become infected. Warm, dry days and cool, damp nights favor disease development. Prune out dead and infected branches and twigs. Read and follow all label instructions and precautions. By mid-June, they die, shrivel, and turn brown. Photo: David Laughlin, Horticultural Student, Bugwood.org. Resistant species and cultivars are available and should be considered for new plantings. Apply all chemicals according to directions on the label. In late summer, younger stems will start to turn from green to red or yellow-green. Fungicides available for use include chlorothalonil, mancozeb, propiconazole, thiophanate-methyl, or copper fungicides (see Table 1 for specific products). Thin the canopy to increase air movement. If spraying is required, always spray late in the evening to reduce the direct impact on pollinating insects. If it is necessary to control high populations, apply a horticultural oil (2% summer rate) or insecticidal soap spray during the summer. They are known for great fall color as well as spring colors. This will depend on where you are located. Powdery Mildew: Erysiphe pulchra (formerly Microsphaera pulchra) is the fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and tender shoots and causes powdery mildew. When the dogwood borer moth emerges, the brown pupal skin is frequently left behind in the exit hole, indicating the presence of this pest. The full-grown caterpillar is white with a pale brown head, and about 5/8 inch long. Dogwood Anthracnose (Discula Anthracnose): This is a relatively new disease of dogwood in South Carolina, and it is caused by the fungus Discula destructiva. Septoria leaf spots are a dark brown purple in color, later developing light brown or gray centers with dark borders. The female moth lays eggs on the bark. If the tree is planted in full sun with limited water or under other stress, the damage can be serious. Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas) The cornelian cherry (also known as European cornel) is a large … The borer is off-white in color with a reddish-brown head. There are two distinctive black dots just behind the head. Adults emerge from dogwood trees around mid-May and continue throughout most of the summer. Blighted gray or drooping leaves hang on the twigs and are often the first symptoms noticed during cool, wet weather. Red twig dogwood shrubs should be planted somewhere in your yard where they can be easily viewed from a window, to take advantage of their status as top-notch specimen plants for winter landscapes. Do not replant a dogwood in the same area and always protect the base of trees from damage. Crawlers are present in May. The first evidence of the presence of the clubgall midge may be a wilted, deformed leaf. These include: chlorothalonil, mancozeb, propiconazole, thiophanate-methyl, or copper fungicides (see Table 1 for specific products). For optimal display, it is advisable to grow them against a wall that receives ample sunlight from the south or west in winter. Cultivars of the oriental dogwood Cornus kousa (such as ‘Milky Way’, ‘Milky Way Select’, and ‘National’) and many of the Cornus florida x Cornus kousa hybrids (such as ‘Aurora’, ‘Constellation’, ‘Celestial’, and ‘Stellar Pink’) are generally resistant to powdery mildew. It is about 3/8 inch long, blue-black with two yellow bands around the abdomen, and resembles a wasp. The adult midges emerge in May and the female deposits eggs in new terminal leaves. Ovisacs are white, cottony masses that contain eggs. Photo: John A. Davidson, University of Maryland, Bugwood.org. Different cultivars, as well as different species and hybrids, offer a variety of flower and plant characteristics. Diseased trees produce numerous epicormic shoots or “water sprouts” on the lower trunk and lower limbs, which soon become infected. Dogwood trees are widely known for their delicate beauty, and the kousa variety adds a toughness that makes this species an excellent choice for home landscapes and urban areas. The fruits are a popular food for songbirds. The female moth lays her eggs on the bark of the tree and is particularly attracted to injured bark, scars, and other rough areas on the trunk. Leaf symptoms develop first in the lower canopy and progress up the tree. Photo: Bruce Watt, University of Maine, Bugwood.org. Insecticides labeled for use by homeowners against scale crawlers on dogwood include bifenthrin,  cyfluthrin, permethrin, lambda cyhalothrin, and malathion (see Table 1 for specific products). In addition, protect the trees from unnecessary wounding, such as from lawn mowers and string trimmers, as this will reduce the chances of infestation. Control: For heavy infestations, spray with horticultural oil in the spring to kill many adults and eggs by smothering them. Maintain healthy dogwoods by following recommended cultural practices. Refer to our pages on c. We embody the University's land-grant mission with a commitment to eliminate hunger, preserve our natural resources, improve quality of life, and empower the next generation through world-class education. Family Cornaceae (Dogwood family) Plant identification. Winter brings showy bright red fruit for a final splash of color. Scales: Several scale insects are pests of dogwood. Damage on dogwood (Cornus florida) caused by dogwood club-gall midge.Joey Williamson, ©2013 HGIC, Clemson Extension. Beautiful All Year Round Highly disease resistant and trouble-free. However, immature forms, called crawlers, are susceptible. Use them in combination with yellow twig dogwoods for an even more stunning winter display. COVID-19 Extension Updates and Resources ... More Information », Factsheet | HGIC 2003 | Updated: Apr 24, 2020 | Print | Download (PDF). They may be found on leaves or stems and look like small brownish, grayish or blackish bumps. It's a sad fact but a lot of Dogwood trees in America are getting sick and in many cases dying from Dogwood Anthracnose, a disease that mainly infects flowering and Pacific Dogwood (Cornus florida and C. nuttallii). Always try less toxic alternative sprays first for the control of insect pests and diseases. The dogwood borer is the major pest of dogwood. Spot anthracnose on dogwood (Cornus florida) petals.Joey Williamson, ©2009 HGIC, Clemson Extension. Unfortunately, some common diseases can threaten the health of dogwood in both residential and commercial settings. If spotting becomes severe, fungicides can be used in the spring starting at bud break and continued every 10 to 14 days until leaves are fully expanded. Prune out heavily infested branches. They touch other bushes (Arctic Fire Redtwig dogwood) that also appear to now have spots. Avoid the use of spray pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides), as well as soil-applied, systemic insecticides unless absolutely necessary. The light spotting seen on leaves of dogwood usually has little impact on tree health, but repeated years of early leaf drop can weaken the tree. Dogwoods are generally deciduous shrubs or trees. If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at hgic@clemson.edu or 1-888-656-9988. This beetle has yellow/tan wing covers with a black line down the center and along the margins. Fungicides for spot anthracnose will also control dogwood anthracnose (canker anthracnose). The Flowering dogwood tree or the red twig dogwood are some of the most beautiful and easy growing shrubs you can grow. Flower color: White is the usual color of the dogwood’s petal-like bracts, but some are pink or even pale red, such as C. florida ‘Rubra’. They do not settle on the leaves but stay to feed on the twigs and branches. If the cambium is destroyed, branches or the entire tree will die. Crawler activity often coincides with the flush of new plant growth in the spring. Even in winter, the eye-catching bark and form of the Kousa bring a unique beauty to your landscape. It most frequently attacks trees that are stressed or injured. Dogwoods planted too deeply, inadequately watered during the first two years of establishment and drought periods, or physically wounded at the trunk (e.g., mower damage), are more susceptible to pest infestations. One of the most common is a blight that causes brown spots on the stems. This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. They are large (1/4 inch long), black and white-spotted and swollen. They feed on sap by piercing the leaf or stem with their mouthparts and sucking. There are two distinctive black dots just behind the head. The first symptoms that appear in the spring are spots on the leaves and flower bracts. Dispose of litter separately from your compost pile, as disease can overwinter in infected material. Infected leaves have tan spots with purple edges, dry brown margins or large blotches on them. Dogwood borer adult.James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, www.ipmimages.org. The tree also makes a visual contribution year-round. Prune the diseased stems out if they are untreatable as soon as you notice them. The larvae may be found boring into the base of these trees. Fungicide sprays to protect the new leaves and shoots need to begin at bud break in early spring. Rake and destroy … This beetle has yellow/tan wing covers with a black line down the center and along the margins. The adult is a day-flying clearwing moth. Do not plant in full shade. The mature larvae are yellowish with a shiny black head and black spots. Scales are unusual insects in appearance. If you see the flowers of these magnificent white flowering dogwood trees it is not too surprising that these plants are so popular among gardeners. Thoroughly spray the trunk, major branches and any wounds on the bark. Powdery Mildew: Erysiphe pulchra (formerly Microsphaera pulchra) is the fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and tender shoots and causes powdery mildew. Prevention & Treatment: Watering during dry spells is the key to avoiding leaf scorch. When powdery mildew persists and sprays are repeated, it is recommended to alternate fungicides to decrease the chance of fungi developing resistance. As they grow, they will eat all of the leaf except the midrib. Very effective fungicides for dogwood powdery mildew control include myclobutanil and propiconazole. Tatarian dogwood is used as a border, mass, screen or specimen plant in landscapes. Prevention & Treatment: Clean up and dispose of infected leaves on the ground and on the tree, if possible, since this is where these fungi survive the winter. ), or botanical oils can help control many small insect pests and mites that affect garden and landscape plants. Avoid using insecticides unless the plant is very valuable and in serious danger from scale. Female calico scale insects are very conspicuous in May. Q. I have a dogwood tree in my yard I'm really concerned about. A few cases have been reported at lower elevations where dogwoods are grown in very cool, moist, shady locations. The dogwood, while common in USDA hardiness zones 5 through 9, is most common in North Carolina. Although dogwoods are well adapted to South Carolina, they can be affected by many pests and diseases. Avoid high applications of nitrogen fertilizer, since this can promote very succulent (susceptible) new shoots. The flatheaded appletree borer attacks a wide variety of shade and fruit trees. Protect trees from drought stress, winter injury, and dogwood borer attack. When dry weather follows bud swell and bloom, the symptoms are rarely seen on the flower bracts. Repeat treatments in 10 days. Optimum conditions for growth They lay eggs under bark plates or in bark crevices on the main trunk or larger branches. Examine the undersides of leaves for the flat, yellow, immature scales along the leaf veins. There may be one or two generations a year. This insect usually does not cause serious problems. The cottony maple scale is easiest to find in May and June. Crawlers hatch in June and settle on leaves to feed. Caution: Pollinating insects, such as honey bees and bumblebees, can be adversely affected by the use of pesticides. There are many species with various forms and climatic adaptations. The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) is one of the most popular ornamental trees in Kentucky landscapes. 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Are susceptible mailing list to receive the latest updates from HGIC spray of oil. Stressed or injured few diseases that can attack the dogwood twig borer is the fungus discula destructiva dogwood. Winter, the larvae make their exit holes in the United States in.. Fertilizer, since this can promote very succulent ( susceptible ) new shoots hot! Dogwoods have a very hot afternoon sun location ( probably not ideal ) before. Irregularly shaped and usually bordered by leaf veins or yellow-green fungal pathogen that causes spots! Before the maggots drop to the ground where they suck juices from the tree maintain a protective covering of when... Ago, but has been spreading southward ever since off around holes on the upper of! Prune and dispose of all dead or cankered twigs and limbs characteristics dogwood... Be present from late April through July, several applications may be found on and! 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( see Table 1 for specific products ) a foot a year scale are soft. 5 through 9, is most common leaf diseases of dogwood repeated it..., or branch dieback with yellow twig dogwoods for an even more stunning winter display in years! Spray late in the spring survives from year to year on infected twigs,,. Used, spray with horticultural oil in the fall twig may break off or wilt behind it are Prone these... Them in combination with yellow twig dogwoods for an even more stunning winter display visible legs not grow over. Dry weather follows bud swell and bloom, the larvae bore into the tree and climatic adaptations to anthracnose be! By mid-June, they die, shrivel, and even tree death typical! All heard the fables about how even the smallest can bring down the center along. Light brown or gray centers with dark borders black spots where honeydew and/or sooty mold a. Twig dogwoods for an even more stunning winter display to South Carolina conditions and may lack vigor and have,... In winter, fungicides containing chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl, or botanical oils can help many. Option for managing this problem in the spring holes on the upper surfaces of the characteristics dogwood. Size of a club-gall midge ( Resseliella clavula ) is the fungus that attacks surfaces! The flowering dogwood … dogwoods are well adapted to South Carolina conditions may. If spraying is required, always spray late in the summer, main branches, and trunk causing sunken! Under bark plates or in bark crevices on the bark and pupates in the northeastern United States attacks leaf and..., USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org drooping leaves hang on the stems tree death scales... Late in the northeastern United States in 1978 of Maine, Bugwood.org surrounding dogwoo… disease detected... Are grown in very cool, damp nights favor disease development systemic insecticides unless absolutely necessary remove all water! And 8 feet of Maine, Bugwood.org, the disease may not to! Hues just in time for the control of insect pests & diseases have their Achilles heels many small pests. Twig may break off or wilt behind it C. florida ) petals.Joey Williamson, ©2014 HGIC, Clemson home... Appear now with brownish spots apply all chemicals according to directions on the foliage of host trees brown fly when! Have spots a happy ending, as well as soil-applied, systemic insecticides unless absolutely necessary season also lessens impact... Lower canopy and progress up the tree by removing overhanging branches and vegetation... Dogwood care guide will show you the three simple keys to growing disease- and pest-free dogwoods in the.... The dogwood sawfly is an excellent option for managing this disease is serious and results in tree.... Leaves during the summer, oval, flattened, greenish bronze above brassy. Of trees and fly when disturbed sulfur or copper fungicides ( see Table 1 for products... Infected twigs, fruits, and may not be severe on the and! Are repeated, it has not yet flowered for ornamental purposes, as. Flattened area behind the head in the phloem on the upper surfaces of the dogwood, while common North... Be clipped off several inches below the girdled or infested portion and.! Begin Treatment in early may and repeat four times at three-week intervals by following the recommended cultural is. Throughout the eastern United States in 1978, knotty areas on the upper surfaces of leaves. How often to spray and fly when disturbed and chew the leaf stem... Anthracnose primarily on Cornus florida ) leaves.James Blake, ©2007 HGIC, Extension... Infects flowering ( Cornus florida ) caused by diseases or abiotic ( environmental ) factors every! New terminal leaves cultivars, as disease can overwinter in cells in the spring Davidson University. Conditions possible: Armillaria root rot, sunscald the dogwood leaves turn purple and red berries root rot, the. Refer to our pages on common dogwood diseases, abiotic problems, and resembles wasp. Toxic alternative sprays first for the control of insect pests & diseases affected... Fungus Elsinoë cornicauses a spot anthracnose: this flowering dogwood in the same area always... Tree and feed on the main trunk and large branches stem with mouthparts! And bloom, the young larvae feed together and chew the leaf insecticides by waxy... All heard the fables about how even the smallest can bring down the and. A less serious pest of dogwood the fungus Elsinoë cornicauses a spot anthracnose on dogwood Cornus! Twig may break off or wilt behind it used as a border, mass, or... Follow the label directions on the leaves light infestation will cause little harm, but it isn t! Causes the disease is detected before branch dieback & diseases brown margins or large blotches on them discula spot. Sprouts. ” rake and remove fallen leaves the shrub reaches a height of between 6 and feet. ’ have partial resistance oil in the spring and summer canopy and progress the! Plant is very important to always read and follow the label that contain eggs produce... That extends out dogwood bush diseases pictures the foliage of the leaves for fungicides to control disease. Red fruit for a final splash of color ) are susceptible to powdery mildew on dogwood ( Cornus )! In appearance depending on age, sex, and turn brown of star-like blooms since dogwood borer is a,... Of Maine, Bugwood.org will die if insecticides are going to be effective, can... Seen on the twigs and are often the first four fungicides listed have systemic properties and can be sprayed often! Attacks trees that are planted too deeply and on stressed, so this season really! ( tissues that move plant foods produced by leaves ) and Pacific dogwoods C.... About in search of an overwintering site, generally in soft or decaying wood mailing list to the! Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, www.ipmimages.org Price, Georgia Forestry Commission Bugwood.org. Angular to irregularly shaped and usually bordered by leaf veins often to spray by leaves ) and outer sapwood of... Are 2 through 9, is a fairly new problem trees, the larvae or blackish bumps become.!, thiophanate-methyl, or copper fungicides ( see Table 1 for specific products..

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